Our glossary provides brief definitions and explanations of terms used on the website. If you cannot find the term you are looking for, please email us so that we can consider adding it to the glossary.

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A/B Testing

A/B testing can be described as a simple controlled experiment. During the A/B test, two versions A and B of a single variable are compared to each other. The A and B variants are completely identical, apart from one variation that might affect users’ behavior. A/B test is one the simplest forms of controlled experiment and is useful for understanding user engagement and reaction towards various features, or products.

Age Estimation

Age estimation is how a person’s age is determined based on biometric features.

Aggregated Data

Aggregated Data can be described as numerical or nonnumerical information that has been collected from multiple sources and/or on multiple measures, variables, or individuals. Once the data is collected it is compiled into a data summary or a summary report. This kind of data summary or report is typically used for the purposes of public reporting or statistical analysis.

Algorithm
In computer science and mathematics, an algorithm is a self-contained sequence of actions to be performed. It is a step by step method of solving a problem. Algorithms perform calculation, data processing, and/or automated reasoning tasks.
Analytics
Analytics is the scientific and systematic processing of meaningful patterns which can be found in data. It is concerns turning raw data into meaningful insight for making better decisions. Analytics relies on application such as statistics, computer programming, and operations research in order to quantify and gain insight to the meanings of data. It is especially useful in areas which record a lot of data or information.
Android

Android can be defined as a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software. Android is designed primarily for use in smartphones, tablets, and other portable devices. Android is developed by a group of various developers that are known as Open Handset Alliance. Android is commercially sponsored by Google.

Anonymous Video Analytics
Anonymous Video Analytics is a technology that uses pattern detection algorithms to scan real-time video feeds. The algorithms look for patterns that match the software’s understanding of faces. The data gathered from video feeds is logged but not stored in the system – with nothing in the process recognizing the individuals who passed in front of the sensors.
Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

The laws and regulations that aim to prevent people from disguising illegitimately obtained income as legitimately obtained income. Know Your Customer (KYC) is one aspect of AML.

Anti-Spoofing
Anti-spoofing includes, but is a broader concept than, liveness detection. In the context of facial recognition, it refers to all processes that aim to detect fraud and other attempts to bypass the system.
Application Program Interface (API)
An application programming interface (API), in computer programming, is a set of subroutine definitions, communication protocols, and tools for building software. In simple terms, an API specifies how software components should interact through a set of clearly defined methods of communication among various components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks. These are then put together by the programmer.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Computer systems that are able to perform tasks that are usually associated with human intelligence. AI includes, but is broader than, the concepts of machine learning and deep learning.
Attention Time

Attention Time can be referred to as the amount of time that an individual spends concentrating their attention on a given object or situation without being distracted. Distraction occurs when attention is uncontrollably diverted to another activity, object, or sensation. 

Audience Segmentation
Audience segmentation is a method of dividing people into homogeneous subgroups based upon defined criterion such as demographics, psychographics, product usage, communication behaviors and media use.
Audience Analysis

Audience Analysis allows businesses to gain a deeper understanding of their current and potential customers. Audience analysis involves data gathering that collects data about the given target group. The data can be gained through an accurate and deep understanding of customers, based on their buying behavior, brand experiences, beliefs, needs, and motivation. Through the use of audience analytics, you can enhance your marketing strategy, customer experience, and brand perception. Audience Analytics can be performed via different audience measurement tools, such as Google Analytics, social media analytics, and various paid tools.

Behavioral Profile

The behavioral profile can be described as a summary of all characteristics, traits, and behavioral patterns that define an individual.

Big Data
Big data is a term for extremely large data sets that when analyzed reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behavior and interactions. For some applications, this data maybe too large or complex for traditional data-processing application software to adequately deal with.
Biometric Data
Biometric Data is a term for data points that define the identity or qualities of a person, for example facial landmarks or estimated age and gender.
Biometrics
Biometrics is a term used to refer to technologies used to detect and recognize human physical characteristics. Different aspects of biometrics include biometric data, matching and verification.

C++

C++ is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or “C with Classes”. The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ now has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation.

C#

C# is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm programming language. It encompasses static typing, lexically scoped, strong typing, declarative, imperative, generic, functional, component-oriented (class-based), and object-oriented programming disciplines.

CMS

CMS refers to a content management system. It can be described as computer software that is used to manage the creation and modification of digital content. CMS systems are typically used for enterprise content management (ECM) and web content management (WCM).

Computer Vision
Computer vision is an interdisciplinary field that concerns how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.
Confidence Metric

It is a metric that is used to define the statistical significance of the lift that is being observed. Based on observations, it can be said that the results that are statistically significant at 95% confidence level or higher can be used for business decision making. The statistically significant results that are around 80% confidence level or higher can be used for directional purposes.

Cone Vision

Can be described as an area of sight or a field of view for a given individual. Is usually represented as a 120° cone.

Crowd Analysis

Crowd Analysis can be described as the interpretation of movement data that is based on the natural movement of groups of objects. The process uses human body masses as subjects for crowd tracking analysis that investigates crowd movements and pattern changes of the movement. The data can be used to predict future crowd movement, crowd density, and plant responses to potential events such as those that require evacuation routes. Crowd analysis has many application fields that can range from video game crowd simulation to security and surveillance.

Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)
A type of deep neural network (DNN), where the layers are structured differently to traditional DNNs to optimize for image processing tasks.
CSV

CSV is an abbreviation that stands for Comma Separated Values. CSV is a plain text file that contains a list of data. The data files are generally used for data exchange between different applications. For example, databases and contact managers often support CSV files.

Customer Retention

Customer Retention refers to the ability of a company or product to keep its customers over a specified time period. High customer retention metrics indicate that customers of the given product or business tend to return to, continue to buy or in some other way not defect to another product or business, or abandon the use entirely. The objective of any selling focused organization is to reduce customer defections. 

Dashboard

A dashboard is a visual representation of a given data pool. It can be described as a collection of widgets that give you an overview of the reports and metrics you are interested in the most, based on the database that you are analyzing. Dashboards are highly configurable and can be adapted to the needs of every user. 

Data Analysis
Data analysis is a process of critically examining data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple aspect and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science domains.
Deep Learning
Deep Learning is the application of artificial neural networks to learning tasks that contain more than one hidden layer. It is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.
Deep Neural Network (DNN)
An AI algorithm inspired by the structure of the human brain, which performs a mathematical computation in order to map an input to the desired output. A DNN contains more than one hidden layer (groups of neurons) between the input layer and the output layer.
Digital Signage

Digital signage is a sub-segment of signage. Digital signage screens use various technologies to display their content such as LCD, LED, and Projection to display preset content such as digital images, video, streaming media, and information. The given screens can be found in public spaces, transportation systems, museums, stadiums, retail stores, hotels, restaurants, and corporate buildings, etc. The digital signage system is used for marketing and outdoor advertising purposes, to provide wayfinding, host exhibitions, and host any other digital content. In short Digital signage consists of any size screen displaying any type of content for any reason.  

Digital out-of-home (DOOH)

Digital out-of-home (DOOH) can be defined as dynamic media that is distributed across place-based networks in venues including, but not limited to: cafes, bars, restaurants, health clubs, colleges, arenas, gas stations, convenience stores, barbershops, airports, and public spaces. DOOH networks usually utilize independently addressable screens, jukeboxes, kiosks or any other source. DOOH media is beneficial for location owners as well as advertisers as it is able to engage customers or any given audience and extend the reach and effectiveness of marketing messages. 

Dynamic Content

Can be described as a process of building responsive content that can be used to deliver contextually relevant messages based on the data gained across the DOOH network.

Emotion Recognition
Emotion Recognition is a technology that can read one or more of the basic six emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness) from a given face.
Eye Tracking
Eye Tracking refers to the activity of studying the way that people’s eyes move in order to discover what, especially in advertisements, attracts their attention

Face Authentication
The process of using facial images to determine whether someone is, in fact, who they say they are. Face authentication falls under the broader scope of face recognition.
Face Blur

Face Blur is a technology that works by using deep learning technology to detect faces in any real time video stream or still imagery. Once the software detects a face, an extra layer is added on top of the imagery in the form of blurring or pixilation. This technology ensures that the facial characteristics of the detected person remain anonymous.

Face Detection
Face Detection is localization and classification of faces in an image or video stream.
Face Grouping
The process of sorting facial images into groups based on identity or based on similar facial features.
Face Landmarks/Facial Landmarks
Face Landmarks are pre-defined points on a face that can be located using Computer Vision methods. Example landmarks are the corners of the mouth and eyes. The relative orientation of Face Landmarks can be used to recognize emotions. The face can also be warped to new facial expressions using the landmarks.
Face Recognition
Face Recognition is the task of determining the identity of a face in an image. It is typically used for comparing two faces for identity or by comparing against a database of faces.
Face Redaction

Face Redaction is a programmatic process that can be described as a computer vision technique that allows users to blur faces in an image or video.

Face Search
The process of using one facial image to search for similar faces or for other images of the same face.
Face Tracking
Face Tracking is a form of technology, given a face detection, used for tracking the movement of the face in a video stream. Tracking, which is essentially motion estimation, is an integral part of most face processing systems.
Face Verification

Another term for face authentication.

Foot Traffic Attribution

Can be described as the influence measurement of an advertising campaign in a specified location. This measurement allows advertisers to understand what drives customers into any given store.

Frames

A frame is a physical housing of an advertising display. A Frame with an integrated digital screen can show a series of images, a single static image, or a series of static images if the display screen is integrated with a scrolling mechanism.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
A European regulation that seeks to protect the data privacy of EU residents. The GDPR provides, among other things, how and by whom personally identifiable information may be collected, processed, and stored.

Hard Coding

Hard coding can be described as a software development practice of embedding data directly into the source code of a program or other executable object. Hard-coded data generally can only be edited by changing the source code and recompiling the executable. On the other hand, it can also be changed in memory or on disk using a hex editor or debugger.

In-store Analytics

In-store Analytics can be described as a process of analyzing and pulling meaningful insights from customers’ behavioral data that is gathered within a given location. The analysis is generally focused on different customer behaviors. These behaviours can be measured when the given client is visiting the store. In-store analytics is mainly focused on optimizing store performance and is widely used by businesses to both enhance customer experience and boost sales.

IOS

IOS or formally known as iPhone OS is a mobile operating system that has been created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. This operating system powers many of the company’s mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch.

JSON

JSON is an abbreviation that stands for JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is an open standard file and a data interchange format that uses human-readable text to store and transmit data objects consisting of attribute-value pairs and array data types (or any other serializable value).

Know Your Customer (KYC)
KYC procedures include verifying the identity of your customers, determining the purposes for which they want to use your products, and assessing the risks associated with your customers. Financial service providers are required by law to implement KYC procedures. Some of the reasons for this include: preventing fraud, preventing tax evasion, preventing money laundering, and countering the financing of terrorism. KYC is sometimes also referred to as Customer Due Diligence, or CDD.

Linux

Linux is a family of open-source Unix-like operating systems that are based on the Linux kernel. Most of the time the word Linux refers to a Linux operating system.

Liveness Detection
In the context of facial recognition, the feature or features that ensure that the facial images submitted for identification or verification are of a real person, and/or that the images are taken in real time. The process of ensuring that the software is not being fooled by masks, copies of images, etc.

Machine Learning

Machine learning can be described as an application of artificial intelligence that is used to help systems automatically learn and improve based on past experience without the need of being explicitly programmed.

Narrowcasting

Transmitting a message to a carefully selected audience. The aim of narrowcasting is to ensure that the right message reaches the right people in the right place and at the right time. 

Occlusion
In the context of face analysis, occlusion refers to the situation where a face is partially hidden, for example by sunglasses or a mask.
Opportunity To See (OTS)

Is a basic measurement of media exposure (not to be confused with exposure to advertising).

Out-Of-Home Advertising (OOH)

Out-of-home advertising or in short OOH, which can also be called outdoor advertising, outdoor media, and out-of-home media, can be defined as advertising that can be encountered out of the home. Out of home can include content holders such as billboards, stand displays posters, etc. OOH can also include place-based media such as the ones that can be encountered in supermarkets, convenience stores, and other similar places. OOH, advertising can be split into six main categories: billboards, streets, roads, highways, transit, and alternative.

Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2)
The Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) is a European regulation that each EU country has to integrate into their own national legislation from 14 September 2019. It regulates non-cash payments, payment institutions, and payment account information services. Some of the major changes being introduced by the PSD2 include more stringent payment authentication (Strong Customer Authentication) requirements, provisions for new types of payment institutions as competitors to banks, and provisions for information sharing between banks and third parties (only with the account holder’s consent).
Presentation Attack Detection
See “Anti-Spoofing”
Privacy by Default
In the context of product releases, privacy by default refers to the situation where the strictest privacy settings are applied by default, without the user having to do anything. It also means that only the necessary personal data is collected for the specific purpose for which it is to be used.
Privacy Legislation

Privacy legislation refers to the laws that focus on dealing with the regulation, storing and usage of personally identifiable information such as; healthcare information or financial information that can be collected by governments, private and public organizations, or any other individuals. The definition can also be applied in the commercial sector. For example to trade secrets as well as employee sensitive information. 

Programmatic Advertising
An automated process for buying and selling digital advertising space. Click here to learn more about what programmatic advertising is and how it works.
Push/Pull Mechanisms

Push/Pull mechanisms can be referred to as a business term that is used to interpret specific logistics and marketing strategies.  A Push strategy in marketing usually refers to a situation when a business tries to advertise its products to gain audience awareness, on the other hand, the pull strategy focuses on reaching audiences that have shown existing interest in the product or information about it. The difference also comes in terms of the manner in which the company approaches the lead. For example in scenarios when a company sends out product brochures, that would be described as a push strategy as the company would be focusing on gaining the lead through pushing the item to the client. On the other hand in a Pull strategy, the company would provide a subject matter expert as a speaker for an industry event attended by targeted leads, that could be one tactic used as part of a strategy to pull in a lead by encouraging that lead to seek out the expert in a moment of need for that expertise

Python
Python is a widely used high-level programming language created by Guido van Rossum for general-purpose programming. It was first released in 1991.

Raw Data

Raw Data or also so-called primary data, is data that is represented in numbers, instrumental readings, figures, etc., and is collected from a given source. A typical example would be unprocessed computer data. This information may be stored in any file or maybe a collection of numbers and characters that are stored on a hard disc. In short, information that has been entered into a database can be often called raw data.

Real-Time

Real-time is the actual time during which a process or event occurs.

Retail Insights

Retail Insights are insights pertaining to existing and potential customers and can be used to enhance customer experience and gain competitive business advantages.

Return on Investment (ROI)

Return on Investment or in short ROI can be described as a financial performance measurement tool. It can be used to calculate the efficiency of any given investment or simply compare between each other the efficiency of a number of different investments. ROI calculation focuses on measuring the amount of return on a particular investment, relative to the investment’s cost. In order to calculate ROI, the benefit (or return) of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment. The result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio, which can act as an indicator of the efficiency of the given investment.

Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)

RTSP stands for Real-Time Streaming Protocol. It is a network control protocol that is designed to be used in entertainment and communications systems in order to control streaming media servers. The given protocol is used for controlling media sessions between various endpoints. Media server users can issue various commands such as play, record, and pause. These controls are used to facilitate real-time control of media streaming from the server to the client or in other cases from client to server. 

Sales Funnel

Sales funnel refers to the buying process that businesses use to lead their customers through when they are purchasing products. The process can also be referred to as the process through which a company can find, qualify and sell products to its buyers.

Software Development Kit (SDK)
An SDK provides a set of tools and resources – usually including code samples, APIs, libraries, documentation, and debugging tools – that you can use to make your own application or software for a particular platform. SDKs are useful for simplifying and speeding up the software development process.
Spoofing

Spoofing can be defined as an act of disguising a communication from an unknown source as a communication that is coming from a known source. Spoofing can be applied to emails, phone calls, and websites. Spoofing techniques can be used in order to breach access to an individual’s personal information, spread malware through infected links or attachments, bypass network access controls, or redistribute traffic to conduct a denial-of-service attack. Successful spoofing attempts can lead to infection of computer systems and networks, data breaches.

Toolkit

Toolkit refers to a programmatic form of a given software product. Unlike SDK that is presented in a coded form, toolkit programs are represented in ready-made applications that you can run easily on most platforms. No hard coding is required, which means that anyone can install and use the software within minutes.

Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Using two independent methods to verify someone’s identity. See Strong Customer Authentication

Windows

Windows can be defined as a general word that represents a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft.